Testosterone, its receptors, how it builds muscle, Cortisol, and Xenoestrogens.

How does testosterone build muscle?  what receptors does it activate and what does it tell them

Testosterone builds muscle though a few different actions.
Firstly having a raised testosterone level, As normally you produce about 7mg a day, increases the anabolic state of the body.
Testosterone activates a process of protein synthesis in the muscles. It also stops the degradation of protein, which is an anti-catabolic effect. Together, both these factors along with increased Nitrogen retention help build muscle and hold on to it.
Intracellular androgen receptors cause protein synthesis to be speeded up, the increased Testosterone levels then cause Glycogen retention to take place within the muscle, repartitioning nutrients away from fat and into the muscle cell. These nutrients are then used to help build muscle.
The increased glycogen retention, and resulting water retention as carbohydrates hold water, causes the muscle cell to expand and stretch, also the muscle membrane, and this can also lead to muscle size increase.
These androgen receptors, Also known as NR3C4 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 4, are also whats known as a Nuclear receptor.
Here is the science on how these Nuclear receptors determine the increase in muscle size through activation.
 These Androgen receptors have a direct regulatory effect on Gene transcription by binding  testosterone to the androgen receptor causing a conformational change in the receptor that, causes dissociation of (HSP) These are heat shock proteins, they are then transported from the Cytosol into the Cell nucleus, and dimerization. The androgen receptor dimer then binds to a specific sequence of DNA, This is what we call  a Hormone response element, and this causes the change within the muscle cell.. Androgen receptors interact with other proteins in the nucleus, resulting in up- or down-regulation of specific Gene transcription.
If Androgen receptors are up-regulated which they will be with increased Testosterone levels then through that mechanism of action, IGF-1 is activated within the muscle, increasing nutrient repartioning and muscle change, and Messenger RNA is produced, increasing protein synthesis.
Depending on your own personal Genes, will decide as to weather or not your increases in muscle size are large or small.
How does testosterone burn fat, what receptors are utilised..
Testosterone doesn’t burn fat, But it does increase metabolism. Increased IGF levels promote nutrient repartioning, Androgen receptor stimulation causes the calories you eat to be used as fuel for the muscle, and the increased Androgen receptor activation causes more Testosterone to be converted into DHT and less into Oestrogen, The higher the Test level of the subject, The greater the amount of Receptors activated, and in theory the less adipose tissue possessed, the greater the amount of Testosterone converted through some of these receptors into DHT. Yes Testosterone can have a direct interaction on some androgen receptors. in others its converted into DHT via the isoenzyme 5-Alpha reductase.
The increased DHT limits Oestrogen conversion, and so Oestrogen activated fat cell storage is decreased. Leading to Fat loss. This is how Weight loss actually can increase Testosterone levels as Fat cells synthesize the enzyme aromatase, which converts testosterone, the male sex hormone, into oestrogen, In particular Estradiol., the female sex hormone
other hormones that testosterone turns into and how they benefit
Testosterone can convert into Approximately 7% of testosterone is reduced to (DHT) by 5-AR  Approximately 0.4% of testosterone is converted into Estradiol by Aromatase an enzyme expressed in the brain, liver, and adipose tissues. Oestrogen is predominantly the female hormone, And DHT the hormone that makes men look like men, Harder muscles, hairier bodies, which is why you can tell some women have hormonal problems, its even a good way to tell if someone has polycystic ovaries, as it increases activation of facial hair follicles via 5-ar, and another enzyme 17-b.Low DHT and low Oestrogen can cause Libido problems, they need to be at a balanced level, DHT always being the more dominant of the 2, as you can see by the percentages they are converted into. But you need both, and if Oestrogen is too low, Muscle building will be very difficult as its also involved in protein synthesis, and mineral absorbtion, which are two very important factors in muscle growth.

How does stress lower testosterone what processes?
Cortisol is a well known stress hormone, released under high physical or mental stress.
Cortisol at high levels causes protein synthesis to halt, and it halts tissue growth and recovery.
It always seems if cortisol is high, Testosterone is lower, And if Testosterone is high Cortisol is lower, and I propose this as the reason.
This would be due to a negative feedback loop that causes the  down-regulation of transcripting genes either signaling the production of testosterone or that  signal it’s halt.  Exercise  naturally causes a  drop in cortisol (due to the stress of the exercise) total testosterone will  drop but free testosterone will always rise dramatically this is because of SHGB. sex hormone binding globulin releasing the testosterone so that it  becomes bioavailable (total testosterone =available + that bound to SHBG). 
Cortisol when its high binds up testosterone, and prevents it from being used for protein synthesis, when it drops, that bound test then becomes available.
Rather than go into all the enzymes involved, this seems the easiest way to explain a process that is very difficult to explain.
How does pollution and other factors lower testosterone?   plastic bottles and such?

Xenoestrogens are a type of xenohormone that imitates estrogen. Synthetic xenoestrogens are widely used industrial compounds, such as PCBs, BPA and phthalates, These are found in hair sprays, air fresheners, plastic bottles, plastic microwave meal containers, to name a few.

They have estrogenic effects on a living organism even though they differ chemically from the estrogenic substances produced internally by the endocrine system of any organism.

Xenoestrogens are clinically significant because they can mimic the effects of endogenous oestrogen, and the implications are huge, Lowered testosterone, increased feminisation, increased chance of prostate and other cancers, suppressed immune systems, to name just a few possible sides from thses parabens and horrible Xenoestrogens.

Limit your contact with them, Glass containers are best, Not only that, but the toxins in these containers can lower testosterone and cause oxidative stress on your organism. Why put all the effort in to eat healthy, and train hard, get the best supplements, to hamper your health and gains through this Testosterone poison

Until next time, enjoy my article, if you like it please share it or link it, Thank you. RS


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