TITAN IS DHT NOT TESTOSTERONE, WHAT IS DHT?

Ok guys are there is some confusion here.

Testosterone converts into two very distinct hormones.
Estrogen
And DHT OR DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE, OR 5a-dihydrotestosterone.

Testosterone converts into DHT via 5a reductase.

Other names for DHT are..

Androstolone, stanolone, anabolex, anaprotin, andractim, androlone, gelovit, pseomax, stanaprl, neoprol, adactrim, testexdht, and of course the first real copy and strongest formula on the market TITAN.

DHT is used in science and in medicine as an androgen, it cannot via any pathway convert into Testosterone.
It cannot aromatize, and so therefore it cannot cause any of the sides associated with Testosterone conversion into estrogen.

DHT has 33 times the affinity to Androgen receptors than Testosterone.
If a person is born with congenital 5-a reductase deficiency , you wont have the predominant characteristics of a fully developed man, and some of these are..
Gyno , small penis, high balls, low testosterone, a round face, weak features, no body hair, small chin, saggy skin.
They may have normal testosterone levels, but without DHT they do not develop normally.

DHT binds stronger to receptors than estrogen, which is why it can be used instead of aromasin, arimidex or letro to reduce estrogen without lowering igf. Even though aromasin elevates igf , it does not to the same degree dht does.

DHT can be used to prevent gyno, and it has been used to treat gyno caused by a lack of dht in many clinical studies. Masteron was used as an injectable because of its ability to bind to the androgen receptor and reduce GYNO, it also can lower water retention on cycle caused by estrogen and prolactin.
DHT does this to a far greater degree, it also reduces SHBG far more than provirion, winny or masteron.

The other way DHT works is to increase penis length, by binding to the receptors in the penis it increases length, health, and girth of the erection and flaccid penis. Studies have shown DHT to be the only successful way to treat a small penis or micro penis. And its been prescribed for this with an inflated price tag.

TITAN is DHT nothing else, with a unique carrier its able to penetrate and bind to the androgen receptor, it lowers estrogen, dries up the user, and increases mental clarity. Over time prolonged use increases the penis length and makes the user more masculine.

Why would you want to lower your estrogen, or use a synthetic estrogen when you can use TITAN?

Over use can interfere with testosterone production and lower its output, but through topical application this is rarely an issue.

Kindest regards R.S

 

BUY TITAN HERE

 

12% DHT GEL

 

WWW.RUSSIANSTARPEPTIDES.COM

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Steves log for TITAN 12%dht gel

This guy wrote a review on my site and I was inspired by this guy, very honest and deliberate , a guy struggling with feelings of insecurity. 3 months after first buying Titan, the guy has seen changes, and even more importantly felt them. He feels more confident and that’s a continued journey to where he wants to be.

http://forum.bodybuilding.com/showthread.php?t=171429491&p=1442386991#post1442386991

Here are a list of reviews from the website for titan so far.

rob (uk) – 12/03/2016:

Been using this for 12 weeks, had it checked first, its supposed to be 12% dht but its actually stronger, was 14%. And real DHT so that was good, also ive gained 1.3 cm in length already. I will be running this for at least a year.
Thank you Russianstar for bringing out an amazing product, customer for life here. Don’t like the DMSO smell though haha. Best thing is flaccid length is up nearly 0.7 inches!! And balls look swollen, erections seem harder but that might be my imagination. I will let you all know how it goes!
RUssianstar – 13/03/2016:

I am glad to hear of your results , I’m sure there will be a lot more results before long.
Thank you, R.s

5

    out of 5

DR WHOO

21/03/2016

    :
      I wont say my name as I am a little embarrassed , but I want to share my experiences. I have micro penis, and the nhs wont help me as they say I’m of sound mind, what a joke, anyway in November 2015 I came across this. Ive been using it 3 x a day every day, nhs told me it would need 3 years of dht application so I’m not expecting miracles.

 

      4 months in I have increased in length 0.5 inches which for me is massive, I’m using a pump now as I was too small to use it earlier and every day it feels stronger and longer, this may well change my entire life. if it does you deserve the nobel bro! Thank you hope you don’t mind me posting this up you can moderate it if you like.

 

    Thanks again DR WHOO

4 out of 5

Mr big – 08/04/2016:Well I have one complaint the smell, but apart from that ive been using this since December and I’m much thicker in girth which is what I wanted, it takes time and every day application but the stuff works!! Bravo!!

 

5 out of 5

Cigarguy19 – 28/04/2016:

I can’t give a full review yet, as I just tried it today. I was waiting by the mailbox like a hawk. I did not notice a strong smell. It must be from your new batch. It’s more of a liquid than a cream or gel. That makes it a little difficult to measure. Other than that, I’m glad you made this. I’d love to know where Rob had it tested. Here’s to bigger and better things.

levi.filimanov – 02/05/2016:

Thank you so much bro, I can message rob on here and find out for you.

 

 

5 out of 5

Cigarguy19 – 02/05/2016:
Like I said, the smell isn’t as strong as I’ve read about but it is kind of a metal smell. Dries out the area in which it is applied. However, dryness can be fixed. My first comment is still waiting approval after a few days. Hope you’re still there.

levi.filimanov – 02/05/2016:

Sorry bro didn’t see the comment come in, thank you for your honest review, maybe I can work on the dryness with the next batch.

 

5 out of 5

bango – 02/05/2016:

I have using this for 12 weeks and this week I’m seeing a change , I know dmso can big vasolidation , (right word?) but this is different the muscle is getting thicker.
My cousin ordered this too and she is using it because she having a sex to change into men. She say it save her so much euro because other gel is weak and expensive.
Thank you great Titan product,!!

5 out of 5

Amyra– 06/05/2016:

Thank you from Dubai!!!

 

5 out of 5

LUIS – 06/05/2016:

This is great, good customer service and very helpful.
I send this all the way from brazil!

 

5 out of 5

Cigarguy19 – 12/05/2016:

Wow Levi. I’m impressed. I’m starting to notice a bit of growth after 2 weeks. Thank you for making such a high percentage at a decent price. Bango is correct about the other product; low percentage and very high cost. Gives a nice tingle when applied too, lol. Must be the vasodialation. I should probably get my testosterone level checked to make sure it’s not getting too high. Thanks again.

 

5 out of 5

Steve – 16/05/2016:

Hi my name is steve and this has changed my life, no lie.. you deserve a nobel prize bro
I am logging this on bodybuilding.com amazing stuff.
http://forum.bodybuilding.com/showthread.php?t=171429491&p=1442386991#post1442386991

  1. Please all follow me, I’m just an average joe, no affiliations.
    Huge thanks from Canada.

     

    Please follow steves log I hope he keeps it updated, the sale for Titan is still going on. If you post an honest review on the website by clicking the star rating below Titan then email me your review at orders@russianstarpeptides.com ,  your next order I will give you a free bottle of titan when you buy 2 bottles!!! Buy 2 get 1 free just for posting your review.

We need to spread the word and help other guys like steve who struggle with insecurities , and we all need your support to do this.

Thank you R.s

 

ATD a potent anti-oestrogen

3,17-dioxo-etiochol-1,4,6-triene
1,4,6-Androstatrien-3,17-dione
1,4,6 etiollochan-dione
Known as: ATD
Half life : 48 hours
Molar mass: 282
What is ATD?
1,4,6-Androstatrien-3,17-dione (ATD) is a potent irreversible A.I that inhibits estrogen biosynthesis by permanently binding and inactivating the Aromatase enzyme in the adipose tissue, (Fat cells) and in the surrounding peripheral tissue.
It can be used on cycle and during PCT to reduce estrogen and help recover natural testosterone production.
ATD has 90% androgenic activity in muscle tissue but only 10% androgenic activity in the hypothalamus. What this means is it helps you hold onto muscle and it also means that ATD blocks the Androgen-Negative-Feed-Back-Loop and aids in decreasing estrogen production while increasing natural testosterone production. Used on cycle it should help reduce shutdown, and prevent estrogen related sides.
How does it work?
There are two main negative feedback loops that we need to consider in PCT. The first is elevated estrogen levels from aromatase activity that will act on the hypothalamus to decrease GnRH production. The second is that elevated androgen levels stimulate androgen receptors in the hypothalamus causing decreased GnRH production. Decreased GnRH leads to reduced LH and FSH production, both of which are directly involved in testosterone production.
ATD combats this in a very interesting way.
ATD works for androgen activity the same way that Serm’s like Nolvadex block estrogen in breast tissue, but allows estrogen to have positive effects in other organs and tissues such as the liver and bone. ATD blocks androgens in the hypothalamus, but allows it to be active in the muscle, By doing this it increases GnRH production, increasing LH and FSH leading to increased testosterone.
ATD also lowers estrogen and is therefore able to increase GnRH from that angle also.
This is how it tricks your body into producing more testosterone.
How can it be used?
Obviously it can be used in PCT, but it has therapeutic affects on cycle, first it only has Anti-androgen affects in the hypothalamus, this means that along with it not interfering with any positive affects from AAS, it also means less shutdown as the androgenic or estrogenic affects of steroids are unable to cause shutdown in the same way as they would without ATD.
As it prevents estrogen and androgens from shutting down GnRH production, less HTPA shutdown takes place, and so recovery after stopping the steroid cycle is much easier.
What does is affective?
25mg a day of ATD on cycle will prevent a large measure of shutdown, obviously depending on what AAS are being used, higher amounts than this can cause severe joint pains and dryness..
During PCT you will notice a surge in libido and then libido drop off, so I suggest starting at 50mg a day, then tapering off this allows for estrogen and androgen levels to return to homeostatis, and it will also prevent estrogen or androgen rebound, prevent Acne and estrogen related rebound sides.
Points of interest.
ATD will give a positive sample as its metabolites are similar to that of the vetinary steroid Equipoise, so please keep this in mind.
Kindest regards Russianstar.

The Dangers of excess Estrogen.

Estrogen has a few misconceptions and hopefully this article will clear things up.
As an example, coffee boosts testosterone, but increases cortisol, cortisol lowers SHBG, and so you lower your testosterone estrogen ratio.
IMPORTANT
It isn’t elevated estrogen that is a problem, the reason is this, if estrogen is elevated, its likely Testosterone is too, and as long as the ratio for Testosterone to Estrogen is correct, EVERYTHING is ok, no need to worry.
In our youth The testosterone ratio can be around 50.1 that’s considered close to perfect. But anything around 30-40 is acceptable.
There are contributing factors as to why some guys are more prone to Estrogen related sides on a cycle.
These factors are.
High saturated fat diets.
Carrying a lot of fat weight.
There are also MEDs that can produce a marked change in Testosterone to estrogen ratio.
Using a PDE5 inhibitor
Using an Aromatase inhibitor.
Why is excess Estrogen dangerous?
Estrogen doesn’t cause Gynecomastia or GYNO for short!
Gyno is caused by an incorrect estrogen to androgen profile or ratio, the excess estrogen is trying to turn your body into a female, and as we are all aware the female characteristics most noticed are often larger breasts than in a male.
As long as the Ratio is correct this cant happen, The reason why people often suffer from rebound gyno, is they have very low test levels, and so your body is predominantly female. Hence the moods, etc.. or is that chauvinist?
The biggest dangers are the following..
Excess estrogen doubles your stroke risk.
This is a quote from the Mayo clinic
estradiol (a potent estrogen) were measured in a group of 2,197 men aged 71 to 93 years of age. Adjustment for age, hypertension, diabetes, adiposity, cholesterol, atrial fibrillation, and other characteristics were made. During the course of follow-up, men with the highest blood levels of estradiol had a 2.2-fold greater risk of stroke compared with those whose estradiol levels were lower.2This study revealed that estradiol blood levels greater than 34.1 pg/mL resulted in this more than doubling of stroke incidence. Life Extension long ago warned men to keep their estradiol levels below 30 pg/mL.”

Decreased Cardiovascular health

A study on middle aged men with high estrogen levels found out this very interesting observation made by researchers again at the Mayo clinic.

“Ultrasound measurement of the carotid artery wall provides an accurate prognostic indicator of arterial disease. The findings in this study show progression of carotid artery intima-media thickness in men with higher estradiol levels. Greater carotid artery intima-media thickness sharply correlates with increased risks of heart attack and stroke”

Increased risk of Rheumatoid arthritis

Levels of estradiol in rheumatoid arthritis patients are higher and DHEA levels lower compared with those who dont suffer from chronic inflammation. This corresponds to studies showing that high estrogen levels can increase C-reactive protein, which is the most accurate marker for systemic inflammation. Elevated C-reactive protein is an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease in healthy individuals.
The list goes on and on.
Low fat diets for better Test/estrogen ratios 
We are all aware, that high estrogen levels cause you to store more fat, which doesn’t look good and ist healthy.
But did you know the diets high in saturated fats, especially on steroid cycles can play havoc with your Testosterone estrogen ratio?
Most people think low fat diets are not good for keeping your sex hormones optimal, but research and science actually shows otherwise.
One study found that                                    estradiol (the “bad” estrogen or E2) fell from 47.2 to 23.8 pg/ml                         on average, which is obviously a big change.                          This is a reduction of over 50% and cut their estrogen levels in half!  And the remarkable thing is that their testosterone stayed steady before and                         after at 510 ng/dl.
So instead of damaging their testosterone ratio, their test stayed the same, and estradiol dropped! Improving their ratios, actually it nearly doubled the ratio in favour of Testosterone.
On a steroid cycle high fat diets not only affect the amount of estrogen converted , but decrease the effectiveness of the steroid cycle, and the health implications of higher estrogen and excess fat have already been outlined above.
Being Fat
You wouldnt be surprised to find that people with a BMI above 25, and below 25
when compared often have an estrogen ratio difference of about 12 – 17, which corresponds to a 42 percent difference in estrogen.
However we all know that most bodybuilders BMI will make them obese, even if they have very low bodyfat. In my previous articles we would of seen that the more aromatase the more estrogen and the more estrogen, the less testosterone.
 Excess body weight is correlated with both lowered testosterone and increased                         estrogen.  Stomach fat actually deactivates DHT, and it converts at greater amounts the more layers of belly fat you have to,  5alpha-androstane 3alpha 17beta-diol this is a very potent estrogen as is 5alpha-androstane 3beta 17beta-diol, The longer you’ve been fat, the greater the enzymatic deactivation of DHT and the greater the conversion into these potent estrogens, Both of which are responsible for increased water retention, leading to higher blood pressure! Ever wondered why your blood pressure often spikes on a cycle, Well if your fat this might just open your eyes.
The less body fat you have, the better your testosterone estrogen ratio will be during the steroid cycle. And of course after during PCT.
The benefits of a PDE5 inhibitor.
If your a little overweight, or struggling with your libido and erections, then your self esteem lowers, And time and time again after a steroid cycle, and during ive seen guys crash, this is nearly always because of excess estrogen, not elevated estrogen. I hate all this bro science garbage, get it right guys, estrogen is important for libido, if your libido is gone its either, your Testosterone estrogen ratio is wrong, so either too much test or too little estrogen, Or the other way around. Or very little DHT conversion or activation, if your fat this is likely along with having a poor estrogen ratio. Prolactin is very rarely is the culprit unless you have used a Nor-steroid, like Deca.
Using a PDE5 inhibitor causes an increase in nitric oxide, bam, You are able to have sexual intercourse, One study showed an improvement of the estrogen testosterone ratio by a staggering 24% after sex.
 What is very interesting is                         that in the above study, testosterone only increased 5.5% on average but                         estrogen lowered by about 15%. So if you cant get an erection, a PDE5 inhibitor mare really help your post cycle crash, if you don’t need one, sex could be your biggest help.
Using an aromatase inhibitor
For arguments sake lets use Arimidex, its a really well known A.I
In a well documented study it showed that in hypogonadal                         senior men, the T/E ratio was increased on average by 115%.  It produced an increase of                         62% in testosterone and a 24% decrease in estradiol.
On a cycle where there will be a large amount of conversion to estrogen, it might not be needed unless you see the signs of high estrogen levels, water retention, high blood pressure, then dosing accordingly is important, you don’t want to kill your estrogen levels, not only will it hamper gains, but no estrogen is very very bad for your health, and causes a tremendous amount of internal damage.
All you want to do is keep the ratio to a healthy level, so don’t leave things to chance, regular check ups are needed.
If you destroy estrogen, it comes back with a bang when you stop taking you A.I, and that can pose a big problem, as it comes back much harder than testosterone does, throwing your ratio in favour of estrogen and leading to rebound gyno etc.
So tapering off your A.I during PCT is a must, its not bro science, it is a science, and anyone who says otherwise should not be handing out guidance.
There are many other causes of GYNO but here we are just looking at excess estrogen.
As long as testosterone is always higher by about 35 percent than estrogen, your health and libido will rarely suffer, if you have a healthy bodyfat level, if you don’t then lose weight, and you might be surprised to see a large increase in your baseline testosterone levels.
Until next time, stay safe, and keep that excess estrogen under control.
RS.

REFERENCES:

The Journal of Sexual Medicine, Jul 2006, 3(4):716-722,                         “Testosterone:Estradiol Ratio Changes Associated with Long-Term Tadalafil                         Administration: A Pilot Study”

Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine, 2006, 52(2):97-102, “EFFECT OF BODY                         WEIGHT ON TESTOSTERONE/ESTRADIOL RATIO IN OLIGOZOOSPERMIC PATIENTS”3) Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 2008 Apr, 18(2):131-41, “Dose effect of                     caffeine on testosterone and cortisol responses to resistance exercise”

Am J Med, 1985 Jan, 78(1):23-7, “Effects of a high-complex-carbohydrate,                         low-fat, low-cholesterol diet on levels of serum lipids and estradiol”

The Journal of Urology, Feb 2002, 167(1):624-629, “AROMATASE INHIBITORS FOR                         MALE INFERTILITY

Why Formestane is needed.

This helps show its efficiacy at preventing estrogen and prolactin. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20491779
“In cells which expressed ERalpha, formestane/herceptin combination suppressed the mRNA expression of aromatase and HER2 and decreased cyclin D1 expression”
So you know HER2 is to do with prolactin expression. Formastat(tm) contains the suicide aromatase inhibitor formestane (4-hydroxyandrostenedione), a clinically proven anti-estrogen exceedingly more potent than any supplement to come before it. 6-oxo-androstenedione, chrysin, indole-3-carbinol, calcium d-glucarate, trihydroxystilbene, not even our old Viratase (5-alpha-androstanedione) can come close. All of them combined in one capsule still wouldn’t even have a shot. Formastat(tm) is such a revolutionary advance in the area of estrogen suppression because it contains the only agent backed by not one but numerous placebo-controlled human medical studies, and so effective it is actually a prescription breast cancer drug in other countries.

Formestane (4-hydroxyandrostenedione)
Suicide Aromatase Inhibitor
Formastat is in many regards similar to a competitive steroidal aromatase inhibitor like Viratase. Both are steroidal compounds that work by attaching to the active binding site of the aromatase enzyme, preventing it from interacting with other steroids (such as testosterone) that are capable of being converted to estrogen. With the enzyme binding site occupied, it is for all intents and purposes inactive. If the inhibitor is present in a high enough level it will dramatically suppress estrogen concentrations in the blood. The difference between a competitive inhibitor like Viratase, and Formastat, is that the former will detach after some time, rendering the enzyme active again. Formastat on the other hand binds permanently with the aromatase enzyme, making it useless until the body actually replaces it through the normal metabolic attrition of enzymes. This type of compound is called a suicide or irreversible aromatase inhibitor, and has the benefit of being both highly selective in its action on estrogen and long-lasting in effect.
Because of its potent estrogen-suppressing action, 4-hydroxyandrostenedione has been successfully used on breast cancer patients in many other countries including England, Germany, Switzerland, Spain, Australia, New Zealand, Italy and Malaysia12345678 It has been shown to be an effective option as a second line of defense after tamoxifen, an estrogen receptor antagonist, has failed to elicit a positive response with patients, and to produce an overall response statistically similar to tamoxifen when administered as the first-line therapy . Those of us in the bodybuilding world looking to mitigate the physiological effects of estrogen for other purposes have likewise been confronted for the first time with a legal supplement that has all the actions and potency of a pharmaceutical agent, which would normally be obtained only with a doctor’s prescription! .
Dose and Pharmacokinetics
After oral administration peak levels of 4-hydroxyandrostenedione are reached in the blood at approximately 1.5 hours , and the drug is cleared from the body with a half-life of approximately 3 hours . Due to its nature as an irreversible inhibitor, its estrogen-suppressing activity outlives it actual active lifespan in the bloodstream. Studies have demonstrated that maximum estrogen suppression is achieved with an oral dose of only 250mg per day12 . Doubling this dose to 500mg, or even quadrupling it to 1000mg, was shown to have no effect on aromatase inhibition or estrogen levels appreciably different from the 250mg dose.
The Need for Estrogen Maintenance
Estrogen has both positive and negative effects that you should be aware of. On the positive it supports good high density cholesterol, increases muscle glucose utilization for tissue growth and repair, and even increases androgen receptor concentrations in various tissues. It is now understood that estrogen serves many useful purposes in men, particularly if we are looking for rapid muscle mass gain. If bulk is the goal it is therefore usually advised to hold off on estrogen maintenance compounds until there is a clear need for them. This brings us to the negative side of estrogen, namely that it can work to hide muscle definition by increasing water retention and fat buildup. It can also promote gynecomastia (the development of female breast tissue) in men if levels get too high. Since androgens and estrogens playing opposing roles on the disposition of body fat and the growth of mammary tissues, maximizing the ratio between these two hormones is often an important objective, particularly at times when dieting and cutting are key goals or gynecomastia is a worry because strongly aromatized hormones such as testosterone are being supplemented.
Testosterone Stimulation
To spite that fact that 4-hydroxyandrostenedione is also a weak prohormone to the anabolic steroid 4-hydroxytestosterone, as an aromatase inhibitor it also possesses notable testosterone stimulating properties. Whatever weak androgenic activity it may have is more than compensated for by its strong ability to lower estrogen levels. This action of course reduces the suppressive signal estrogen sends to your brain (estrogen is a main feedback signal to control the release of testosterone), increasing the testicular output of testosterone. In-vivo human studies show clearly that 4-hydroxyandrostenedione will suppress estrogen concentrations at levels that were not high enough to suppress gonadotropins13 . Even studies using 250mg to 500mg of 4-hydroxyandrostenedione injected every 2 weeks, or oral doses as high as 1000mg daily, have failed to show any notable suppressive effect towards testosterone concentrations14 . When the drug was given to men, including oral doses as high as 500mg (double the maximum recommended dose), we have seen measurable increases in serum testosterone concentrations 15 16 17. Due to the theoretical potential for androgenic feedback inhibition at high doses we do recommend, however, keeping within the recommended dosage range, and perhaps even limiting the dose to 2-3 caps per day, at times when increasing testosterone levels is a primary focus of use.

Figure 1. Mean testosterone increase in 6 normal men given 500mg of oral 4-hydroxyandrostenedione. Source: Comparison of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of unformulated and formulated 4-hydroxyandrostenedione taken orally by healthy men. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;27(1):67-71
Post-Cycle Use
When used during the recovery window after a cycle of prohormones, or even steroids for that matter, Formastat can offer a very unique additional benefit. The main focus at this time is of course minimizing the post-cycle hypoandrogenic (low androgen) state, mainly by trying to restore the natural production of testosterone, which in many cases has been suppressed by the cycle of hormones. In most cases some type of anti-estrogen is incorporated into an athlete’s recovery program, due to the effect they can have on testosterone release (discussed above). Because Formastat is also a prohormone to 4-hydroxytestosterone, however, it allows for some small level of continued supplementation of exogenous androgen during this window. Normally this would be considered a very bad idea, as androgens are usually suppressive towards testosterone release. But with this product its weak androgenic activity is compensated for by its estrogen suppressing action, so provided reasonable doses are used it can essentially serve as a small bridge to full testosterone recovery. Regular aromatase-inhibitors, of course, cannot offer this benefit.
searl and bell formestat research Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;27(1):99-130
DHT Inhibition
This compound has also demonstrated some ability to inhibit the 5-alpha reductase enzyme in certain in-vitro studies , which would seem to suggest it could offer some benefit by reducing androgenic activity in sensitive target tissues with high concentrations of 5-alpha reductase. At least one study in Scotland, however, suggests that this trait of 4-hydroxyandrostenedione is not strong enough to offer much of a physiological effect . Another makes note of both testosterone and DHT increases in some male patients taking the compound, not testosterone alone, which clearly does not support a strong DHT inhibiting role . We therefore at this time do not have enough evidence to conclude that 4-hydroxyandrostenedione is a potent 5-alpha-reductase inhibiting compound, however will continue to investigate this possible activity.
The Need for Estrogen Maintenance
Estrogen has both positive and negative effects that you should be aware of. On the positive it supports good high density cholesterol, enhances growth hormone output, increases muscle glucose utilization for tissue growth and repair, and even increases androgen receptor concentrations in various tissues. It is now understood that estrogen serves many useful purposes in men, particularly if we are looking for rapid muscle mass gain. If bulk is the goal it is therefore usually advised to hold off on estrogen maintenance compounds until there is a clear need for them. This brings us to the negative side of estrogen, namely that it can work to hide muscle definition by increasing water retention and fat buildup. It can also promote gynecomastia (the development of female breast tissue) in men if levels get too high. Since androgens and estrogens playing opposing roles on the disposition of body fat and the growth of mammary tissues, maximizing the ratio between these two hormones is often an important objective, particularly at times when dieting and cutting are key goals or gynecomastia is a worry because strongly aromatized hormones such as testosterone are being supplemented.
A Naturally Occurring Hormone
4-hydroxylated androgens such as 4-hydroxyandrostenedione have been shown to be naturally occurring, and therefore can be legally sold as nutritional supplements.
REFERENCES:
1 Treatment of advanced breast cancer with formestane. Murray R, Pitt P. Ann Oncol 1994;5 Suppl 7:S11-3
2 Pilot study of formestane in postmenopausal women with breast cancer. Joseph JK, Lim AK. Med J Malaysia 1998 Mar;53(1):37-41
3 Formestane is feasible and effective in elderly breast cancer patients with comorbidity and disability. Venturino A, Comandini D. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2000 Aug;62(3):217-22
4 Formestane versus megestrol acetate in postmenopausal breast cancer patients after failure of tamoxifen: a phase III prospective randomised cross over trial of second-line hormonal treatment (SAKK 20/90). Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research (SAKK). Thurlimann B, Castiglione M. Eur J Cancer 1997 Jun;33(7):1017-24
5 Formestane in the treatment of advanced postmenopausal breast cancer. Possinger K, Jonat W, Hoffken K. Ann Oncol 1994;5 Suppl 7:S7-10
6 Comparison of the selective aromatase inhibitor formestane with tamoxifen as first-line hormonal therapy in postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer. Perez Carrion R, Alberola Candel V. Ann Oncol 1994;5 Suppl 7:S19-24
7 An endocrine and pharmacokinetic study of four oral doses of formestane in postmenopausal breast cancer patients. Dowsett M, Mehta A. et al. Eur J Cancer 1992;28(2-3):415-20
8 Formestane is feasible and effective in elderly breast cancer patients with comorbidity and disability. Venturino A, Comandini D. et al. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2000 Aug;62(3):217-22
9 Formestane. A review of its pharmacological properties and clinical efficacy in the treatment of postmenopausal breast cancer. Wiseman LR, Goa KL. Drugs Aging 1996 Oct;9(4):292-306
10 Comparison of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of unformulated and formulated 4-hydroxyandrostenedione taken orally by healthy men. Dowsett M, Lloyd P. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;27(1):67-71
11 Dose-related endocrine effects and pharmacokinetics of oral and intramuscular 4-hydroxyandrostenedione in postmenopausal breast cancer patients. Dowsett M, Cunningham DC et al. Cancer Res 1989 Mar 1;49(5):1306-12
12 An endocrine and pharmacokinetic study of four oral doses of formestane in postmenopausal breast cancer patients. Dowsett M, Mehta A, King N, Smith IE, Powles TJ, Stein RC, Coombes RC. Eur J Cancer 1992;28(2-3):415-20
13 Aromatase inhibitors and hormone-dependent cancers. Brodie AM, Banks PK, Inkster SE, Dowsett M, Coombes RC. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 1990 Nov 20;37(3):327-33
14 Dose-related endocrine effects and pharmacokinetics of oral and intramuscular 4-hydroxyandrostenedione in postmenopausal breast cancer patients. Dowsett M, Cunningham DC et al. Cancer Res 1989 Mar 1;49(5):1306-12
15 Aromatase inhibition: 4-hydroxyandrostenedione (4-OHA, CGP 32349) in advanced prostatic cancer. Davies JH, Dowsett M, Jacobs S, Coombes RC, Hedley A, Shearer RJ. Br J Cancer 1992 Jul;66(1):139-42
16 Comparison of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of unformulated and formulated 4-hydroxyandrostenedione taken orally by healthy men. Dowsett M, Lloyd P. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;27(1):67-71
17 Pharmacokinetics of 4-hydroxyandrostenedione in man after intramuscular injection of different formulations and the effect of this drug on plasma aromatizable androgens and 17beta-estradiol concentrations. Danza G, Muratori M, Guarna A, Occhiato EG, Sadri R, Serio M. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 1993 Sep;46(3):373-9
18 Aromatase and other inhibitors in breast and prostatic cancer. Brodie AM, Banks PK, Inkster SE, Son C, Koos RD. Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 1990 Dec 20;37(6):1043-8
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Relative Potency of Type 1 and Type 2 Aromatase Inhibitors

Product

Aromatase Inhibition (%)

Residual Aromatase (%)

Formestane/

4-Androstenoldione

91.9

8.1

Aromasin/Exemestane

97.9

2.1

Cytadren/

Aminoglutethimide

90.6

9.4

Arimidex/Anastrozole

96.7

3.1

Femara/Letrozole

98.7

1.3